Tlatelolco is an area in Mexico City, centered on the Plaza de las Tres Culturas, a square surrounded on three sides by an excavated Aztec pyramid, the 17th century church Templo de Santiago, and the modern ex office complex of the Mexican foreign ministry.
Originally it was an independent Aztec city, but it was absorbed by Tenochtitlán. During the Aztec rule, it was the market district of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlán, probably one of the largest in the Americas.
According to Conquistador Bernal Díaz del Castillo, it was larger than the city of Sevilla and larger than any market any of the Spaniards had seen, even those of Venice and Constantinople, with about 20,000 to 40,000 people trading.
When the conquistadors led by Hernán Cortés lay siege to Tenochtitlán, they conquered and razed it district by district. The surrounding Aztec cities surrendered to Cortés, but the Tlatelolcas remained with the Aztec (Tenochcas). The Aztecs, led by Cuauhtemoc, were finally confined to Tlaltelolco, where they made their last stand, and were defeated beside the Tlatelolcas and slaughtered by the conquistadors.
Over 40,000 Aztec men, women, and children perished at Tlatelolco on August 13, 1521.
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